Você já ouviu falar do jogador belga Jean-Marc Bosman? Provavelmente não. Talvez você já tenha se deparado com tal situação, ao jogar Elifoot ou Football Manager: “O contrato de Fulano Santos está a acabar e ele vai sair do seu clube sem custos, devido à Lei Bosman”, não foi? Ou já se perguntou por que na Europa as equipes não precisam limitar o número de jogadores europeus? Vamos responder a todas essas questões agora!

 

Jean-Marc Bosman não foi um grande jogador, nem atuou em grandes equipes. Então, o que ele fez? Ele brigou por seus direitos e, por sua causa, acabou a “escravidão” dos jogadores de futebol. O mundo do futebol mudou para sempre, para o bem e para mal. Em 1990, Bosman atuava pelo RFC de Liège, da Primeira Divisão Belga. Com seu contrato perto do fim, o clube ofereceu renovação por mais um ano. Entretanto, por achar o valor do salário pequeno demais, o atleta recusou. A recusa fez o clube cortar seu salário em 60% e o clube o colocou na Lista de transferências da equipe, com uma cláusula de liberação de aproximadamente 650.000 euros. Apareceu, então, o Dunkerque, da segunda divisão francesa, que tentou acertar, por empréstimo, com o jogador, para que ele jogasse até o final de seu contrato, porém os belgas queriam ser pagos ao final do contrato. O clube francês não aceitou, e a transferência melou.


Irritado, Bosman entra com ação na justiça contra o Liège, a Federação Belga e a UEFA, alegando que as regras de transferência da FIFA impediram sua transferência para o Dunkerque. Após receber a noticia de que o Tribunal lhe deu razão, rescindiu seu contrato com o Liège e transferiu-se para o Saint-Quentin, da Quarta Divisão Francesa. Porém, um recurso do seu ex-clube fez com que ele fosse impedido de jogar futebol até que tudo estivesse resolvido. Bosnam passou a jogar por equipes pequenas da França e da Bélgica, sem poder receber qualquer tipo de compensação salarial, de 90 a 94.

 

Dessa forma, em 1995, o Supremo Tribunal da Bélgica rejeitou os recursos da Federação, do Liège e da UEFA conta Bosman. Seus advogados, então, argumentaram que o sistemas de transferência do futebol europeu e o limite de circulação de jogadores da União Europeia, nos países da União Europeia, era ilegal. A partir daí, nasce uma grande discussão, cujo cunho seria a alteração ou não do modo de transferência e do limite de estrangeiros no continente europeu. Sucessivas vitórias de Bosman contra todo o mundo do futebol europeu se seguiram, até que a Federação Italiana decidiu liberar a contratação livre de todos os jogadores da União Europeia.

 

Todos os recursos foram julgados e, mesmo descontentes, a FIFA e a UEFA anunciaram, de forma emblemática, no sorteio da Eurocopa de 96, que seriam abolidas todas as restrições. A Liga Espanhola e a Inglesa foram as próximas a abrir porta para todos os atletas comunitários. Em janeiro de 1996, a FIFA e a UEFA se reúnem com os países restantes que ainda resistem às consequências do “Caso Bosman” para que eles mudem suas regras, pelo menos ao final da temporada vigente. E, no final de tudo, a Lei acabou prevalecendo em todo território europeu.

Resultado



Em consequência da Lei Bosman, agora, cada atleta que falte menos de seis meses de contrato pode assinar com outra equipe, sem que lhe seja exigido qualquer compensação financeira para a equipe em que o atleta atua. Também proíbe que as Federações Nacionais e Internacionais do esporte limitem o acesso de jogadores estrangeiros de cidadania da União Europeia, ou seja comunitários. Outra mudança foi o fim da “escravidão” dos jogadores de futebol, que mesmo sem contrato permaneciam a mercê dos seus clubes. O jogador com o passe vinculado ao clube estaria para sempre “preso” a esse clube até que fosse vendido, mesmo sem contrato em vigência.

 

Clique aqui para ver a decisão final do Caso Bosman

 

Consequências


Porto: O único campeão fora das 4 ligas mais fortes pós Lei-Bosman

 

Muitos falam que a Lei Bosman acabou com os clubes holandeses e  franceses. Países de economia fraca não tinham mais como competir contra grandes centros, e as seleções nacionais foram deixadas para trás. Foi tanto que, de 1995 para hoje, apenas equipes da Itália, Espanha, Inglaterra e Alemanha foram campeões europeus, salvo o Porto de Portugal, que foi campeão em 2004, já nas dez temporadas anteriores à lei, equipes de nove países diferentes chegaram à final. Para se ter a noção das consequências, dos 18 atletas do Ajax, relacionados para a final da Copa dos Campeões 94-95, apenas sete continuaram na equipe, pós Lei Bosman. Sobre as Seleções, algumas sofreram bastante. Era possível ver as grandes equipes de seu país com pouquíssimos atletas de sua nacionalidade. Por exemplo, o Inter de Milão, que foi Campeão Europeu, com apenas Materazzi de Italiano entre os relacionados. As Seleções da Inglaterra, Itália, Espanha e Alemanha tiveram, a partir daí, grande dificuldade em formar suas equipes, como se viu nas últimas Copas, em que a seleção inglesa convocou os três goleiros de clubes pequenos.

 

A mudança também afetou o futebol brasileiro, abrindo espaço para mais estrangeiros e possibilitando que alguns atletas ganharem a nacionalidade europeia, o que fez com que se abrisse a porteira para a saída de milhares de jogadores brasileiros para o continente europeu. Se em 1994, a seleção levou 10 atletas “europeus” para a Copa, em 2006 foram 20! A Lei Bosman também influenciou legislações desportivas no Brasil, como a “Lei Pelé” e a “Lei Zico”.

 

No final de contas, a “Lei Bosman” beneficiou os atletas e os clubes ricos e principalmente os Empresários, a partir dela o atleta poderia ser dividido em empresas e não estaria necessariamente ligado a um clube. Fez mal às seleções nacionais, principalmente acabando com a identidade nacional dos clubes europeus. Ainda bem que essa identidade está se recuperando aos poucos.

 

Detalhe: Bosman perdeu todo o dinheiro ganho no processo com bebidas e jogos.


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Sobre o Autor

Yan Cavalcanti, 22 anos, paraibano apaixonado por futebol desde pequeno. Graduando em Sistemas para Internet pelo IFPB, ex-aluno Marista, Estagiário da Dataprev, Goleiro ofensivo, gamer, e acima de tudo fã de um futebol bem jogado e analista da parte tática, sempre tentando arrumar uma forma de explicar uma partida de futebol.

Sobre o Blog

O Futeblog nasceu da vontade de compartilhar com o mundo minha visão sobre o futebol, espero aqui discutirmos de simples opiniões apaixonadas até questões táticas profundas, conto com ajuda de vocês para que possamos tornar esse blog uma ótima experiência fora das quatro-linhas, do passado ao presente, futeblog está aqui para que nós possamos mostrar como vermos esse esporte que é a maior paixão nacional de todas!

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